Fennell, G., Allenby, G. M., Yang, S., & Edwards, Y. (2003). The effectiveness of demographic and psychographic variables for explaining brand and product category use. Quantitative Marketing and Economics, 1(2), 223-244.

The predictive relationship of a large and comprehensive set of personal descriptors to aspects
of product and brand use is examined. The descriptors comprise demographic and general psychographic
variables frequently used in segmentation studies and studies of consumer purchase behavior. The
evidence is overwhelming that the covariates are related to brand use in an identical way for all brands,
indicating that they are not useful for predicting relative brand preference. The covariates are shown to be
predictive of product use. Discussion of the explanatory content of the variables is offered.